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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 13-16

A study of calcaneal enthesophytes (spurs) in Indian population

1 Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab, India
2 Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab, India
3 MBBS Student, SGRD Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Jagdev Singh Kullar
338-D Block, Ranjit Avenue, Amritsar, Punjab
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2229-516X.140709

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Introduction: Calcaneus or os calcis forms a major component of the skeleton of foot providing posterior pillars for bony arches of the foot. It is largest of seven tarsal bones of foot and forms prominence of heel. Many times anterior to calcaneal tuberosity an osteophytic outgrowth has been observed (calcaneal or heel spur) extending along entire width, for about 2-2.5 cm. The apex of spur seen embedded in plantar fascia, directly anterior to its origin. Hence, the study of calcaneal spurs has been undertaken. Materials and Methods: The material for the study consisted of 200 dry (100 right and 100 left), adult calcanei of unknown age and sex obtained from Department of Anatomy. The calcaneal enthesophytes/spurs were studied in detail and classified according to types of calcaneum. Results: Maximum incidence of calcaneal spurs were found in Type I calcanei (11%) and no calcaneal spurs were found in Type III calcanei. Total incidence of dorsal calcaneal spurs in all types of calcanei was maximal (15.5%). The incidence of plantar spurs was 6.5% being highest in Type I calcanei (4%). The incidence and type of calcaneal spurs were compared with those of previous studies and etiology of heel pain has been discussed. Correlation between type of calcanei and spurs has been studied for the 1 st time. Conclusion: Calcaneal spurs are related to type of calcanei with the highest frequency in Type I and least in Type III (no spurs seen in Type III and least in Type IV). Other factors, which contribute toward increase in incidence of spurs, are increasing age and weight, concurrent orthopedic diseases, and heel pain.

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